By Andrew Y. Glikson, Colin Groves
The ebook outlines primary milestones within the evolution of the ambience, oceans and biosphere over the last four million years in relation with the evolution from primates to the genus Homo – which uniquely mastered the ignition and move of fireplace. the appearance of land vegetation given that approximately 420 million years in the past ensued in flammable carbon-rich biosphere interfaced with an oxygen-rich surroundings. Born on a flammable Earth floor, less than more and more volatile climates descending from the hotter Pliocene into the inner most ice a long time of the Pleistocene, human survival trusted both—biological variations and cultural evolution, studying fireplace as a need. This allowed the genus to extend entropy in nature by way of orders of importance. amassed round camp fires in the course of lengthy nights for thousands of thousandth of years, captivated through the flickering life-like dance of the flames, people built mind's eye, insights, cravings, fears, premonitions of dying and thereby aspiration for immortality, omniscience, omnipotence and the idea that of god. Inherent in pantheism used to be the reverence of the Earth, its rocks and its dwelling creatures, contrasted via the next upward push of monotheistic sky-god creeds which regard Earth as yet a hall to heaven. as soon as the weather stabilized within the early Holocene, in view that approximately ~7000 years-ago construction of extra meals via Neolithic civilization alongside the nice River Valleys has allowed human mind's eye and desires to specific themselves during the building of monuments to immortality. additional to burning huge a part of the forests, the invention of combustion and exhumation of carbon from the Earth’s enormous quantities of hundreds of thousands of years-old fossil biospheres set the degree for an anthropogenic oxidation occasion, affecting an abrupt shift in country of the atmosphere-ocean-cryosphere process. the resultant ongoing extinction equals the earlier 5 nice mass extinctions of species—constituting a geological occasion horizon within the heritage of planet Earth.
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Additional resources for Climate, Fire and Human Evolution: The Deep Time Dimensions of the Anthropocene
15). Phanerozoic geochemical models of the carbon, oxygen and sulphur cycles by Berner et al. (2007) underpin the production of O2 through weathering and burial of organic carbon and pyrite, while biological productivity is indicated by 13C/12C and 34 32 S/ S indices. These studies reveal well pronounced trends consistent with geological and paleontological observations (Beerling et al. 2001; Berner 2004, 2005, 2006, 2009; Berner et al. 2007; Beerling and Royer 2011) (Figs. 19). Investigations of the carbon isotope composition of Paleozoic organic matter, including plant fossils, coal, bulk terrestrial organic matter and carbonates (δ13CTotal Organic Matter, δ13Ccarbonate, δ13CCO2) confirm the dependence of both organic and inorganic carbon composition on the atmospheric O2/CO2 ratios (Strauss and Peters- Kottig 2003).
2006). Carbon isotopes from both soil carbonates and biomarkers from deep-sea sediments indicate progressive vegetation shift from C3 (trees and shrubs) to C4 (tropical grasses) plants during the Plio- Pleistocene (Feakins et al. 2005) and thus increased aridity. Extreme climate variability is supported by paleo-diet reconstructions of mammals and hominins (Teaford and Ungar 2000). The close relations between orbital forcing, climate variability and vegetation in East Africa resulted in the rapid appearance and disappearance of ephemeral lakes over periods of hundreds to thousands of years, with implications for the speciation and dispersal of mammals (Deino et al.
Once the thermal blanketing effect of high concentrations of greenhouse gases is removed, the terrestrial climate becomes increasingly sensitive to minor variations in insolation. 0 3. 0 GREENHOUSE EARTH Epoch Late Eocene Early Oligocene Polarity Rapid Cenozoic glaciation of Antarctica induced by declining atmospheric CO2 ICE Fig. 25 Rapid Cenozoic glaciation of Antarctica induced by declining atmospheric CO2 (Pollard and DeConto 2005; Nature, by permission) Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) (Figs.
Climate, Fire and Human Evolution: The Deep Time Dimensions of the Anthropocene by Andrew Y. Glikson, Colin Groves