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By G.E. Dobson

Каталог разновидностей летучих мышей.

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1 A03751-S01 11/11/05 42 1 4:09 PM Page 42 1 EMERGENCY CARE Therapy of hypernatremia or hyponatremia with fluid containing low or higher concentrations of sodium should proceed with caution, for rapid changes (decreases or increases) of serum sodium and osmolality can cause rapid changes in the intracellular and extracellular fluid flux, leading to intracellular dehydration or edema, even though the serum sodium has not been returned to normal. A rule of thumb is to not raise or lower the serum sodium by more than 15 mEq/L during any one 24-hour period.

In addition, any subsequent mismatched transfusions may cause an immediate reaction (usually mild) and rapid destruction of the transfused RBCs. The clinical signs of a transfusion reaction typically only are seen when type A blood is administered to a type A-negative recipient that has been sensitized previously. Incompatible blood transfusions to breeding females can result in isoimmunization and in hemolytic disease in the puppies. The A-negative bitch that receives a transfusion with A-positive and that produces a litter from an A-positive stud can have puppies with neonatal isoerythrolysis.

The volume of blood components required to achieve a specific increment in the patient’s PCV depends largely on whether whole blood or packed RBCs are transfused and 1 A03751-S01 11/11/05 30 1 4:08 PM Page 30 1 EMERGENCY CARE whether there is ongoing hemorrhage or RBC destruction. Because the PCV of packed RBCs is unusually high (80% for Greyhound blood), a smaller total volume is required than whole blood to achieve a comparable increase in the patient’s PCV. In general, 10 mL/kg of packed RBCs or 20 mL/kg whole blood will raise the recipient’s PCV by 10%.

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Catalogue of the chiroptera by G.E. Dobson

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