By Lynette Bradley
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Additional info for Assessing Reading Difficulties: A diagnostic and remedial approach
35 In this study, four-, five-, and six-year old children had to learn to tap out the number (from one to three) of segments in a list of test words which were read to them. Deciding how many syllables were in a word was much easier at all ages than deciding the number of phonemes in a word. A follow-up study showed that children who could tell the number of phonemes in a word were making more progress in reading, although in a further paper the authors suggest that this implied connection could in fact have resulted from reading instruction or intellectual maturation.
The child would not read 'butterfly' instead of 'bag' if he were looking for a word with three 25 phonemic (sound) segments to correspond to the printed word 'bag', instead of looking for a word with three speech (syllabic) units. This complex and abstract relationship between alphabetic writing and speech seems to be a major problem in early reading acquisition. 38 The child does not need to understand this relationship when he is talking. In spoken language words are probably perceived in units which are at least a syllable in length, and certainly not as conglomerations of phonemes.
To find out about the relationship between these skills and reading and spelling the same children were seen in school a year later, and given standardised tests of reading and spelling. Even after the differences in age and vocabulary were taken into account, statistical analysis showed a significant relationship between the children's early skill at production and recognition of both rhyme and alliteration and their scores on the reading and spelling tests. Clearly, young children recognise rhymes before they go to school, and their skill at sound categorisation has a profound effect on their progress in reading and spelling once they get there.
Assessing Reading Difficulties: A diagnostic and remedial approach by Lynette Bradley