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By Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference Short Course 1997

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2: Sharp cutoff at low L values in the AE-8 model. after Daly et al. 4: At 1000km, the SAA beginsto spreadout, showingthe SAA. The bandsat the top and bottom coveringa largerregion. of the plot are the high latitude“horns”of the outer zone. Electrons are not as penetrating as protons because they are lighter and less energetic. 7 plots the energy spectra for electrons emerging behind various aluminum shield thicknesses for the GEO case. Unlike the protons, the shielding is much more effective at attenuating electrons.

Neutronsare the productsof interactionsbetweengalacticcosmicray heavy ions and particlesin the atmosphere. Therefore,the transportof the primarycosmicray particlesis importantin determiningneutrondistributions. 0 Naturally Occurring Particles The particles trapped in the near-Earth electrons, and heavy ions. environment are composed The transient radiation consists of galactic cosmic ray particles and particles from solar events (CMES and flares). The cosmic rays have low level fluxes with energies up to TeV and include all ions in the periodic table.

7: Thetrappedelectronsas a functionof L as measuredby the SAMPEXspacecraft. Note the variabilityat L >3 and the filling of the slot region. NASA/GSFC atmospheric density. The result is that the proton flux from the west is greater than flux from the east. Also contributing to the anisotropy is the concentration of the particles in the SAA that are near their mirror points meaning they are near 90° equatorial pitch angles. more particles will be lost into the atmosphere. This implies that Anisotropy is higher at low altitudes because of the greater atmospheric density The net effect is a directional difference of about a factor of 2 to 7.

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Applying Computer Simulation Tools to Radiation Effects Problems by Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference Short Course 1997

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