By Pramod R. Bhave
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Additional resources for Analysis of Flow in Water Distribution Networks
979 m ™ ,. . ". 3 HYDRAULIC AND ENERGY GRADE LINES If at each point along a pipeline, the pressure head ply is plotted as a vertical distance above the centre line, the locus of end points gives the pressure head line or the hydraulic grade line, HGL. More generally, it is the plot of the piezometric head Z + (p/y) above a convenient datum against length along the pipe. It is, therefore, sometimes known as the piezometric line. , when the gauge pressure is positive, the HGL is above the centre line of the pipe.
If section 2 is 6 m above section 1, find the discharge through the pipe in liters per minute, the velocity at section 2, the direction of flow, and the loss of head. Solution Discharge = AXVX = | ( 0 . ". 165 m of water \ ~ 9,810 Energy Principle 19 Since the total head at section 1 is greater than that at section 2, the direction of flow is from section 1 to section 2. 15 m3 of water per second. The diameter of the pump inlet is 300 mm and the vacuum pressure at the inlet is 150 mm of mercury.
Determine the force required to keep the bend stable. Neglect the loss of head in the bend. 8062) Momentum Principle By the momentum equation in the ^-direction, p,At - Fx - p2A2 cos 60° = QQ (V2 COS 60° - K,) IK \ :. '. 1 INTRODUCTION HEN a real fluid flows through a pipe, part of the total energy of the fluid is spent in maintaining the flow. This used-up energy is converted to thermal energy due to internal friction and turbulence. Such a conversion, which is the loss of energy as far as its utility is concerned, is usually expressed in the form of head of liquids and therefore termed head loss.
Analysis of Flow in Water Distribution Networks by Pramod R. Bhave