By Michael N. Bruton (auth.), Michael N. Bruton (eds.)
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Additional info for Alternative life-history styles of fishes
Tachypelagic sharks have a tuna-like habitus, which may optimize them for long-distance cruising and high-speed dashes. The living shortfin mako (lsurus oxyrinchus) has analogs in the Devonian shark Cladoselache and in large Carboniferous symmoriid sharks such as Cobelodus. The Carboniferous edestoid Caseodus is a tachypelagic durophage shark, with small crushing teeth. the Cretaceous but died out and were replaced by more progressive toothless seabirds in the Cenozoic. A few of the Eocene penguins and an Oligocene-Miocene group of flightless pelicaniform diving birds (Plotopteridae) were considerably larger than the heaviest living marine bird (the emperor penguin, maximum about 46kg), and may have reached 136 kg for the largest Eocene penguins.
160 pp. (In Portuguese). l. 1975. Cleaning behaviour in the centrarchid fishes Lepomis macrochirus and Micropterus salmoides. Anim. Behav. 23: 331-334. O. 1989a. Ontogenetic diet shifts and resource partitioning among piscivorous fishes in the Venezuelan llanos. Env. BioI. Fish. 26: 177-199. O. 1989b. Caudal eyespots as deterrents against fin predation in the Neotropical cichlid Astrono/us ocella/us. Copeia. (in press). Zbinden, K. 1973. Verhaltensstudien an Serrasalmus nattereri. Rev. Suisse Zool.
MarkI1972, Goulding 1980, Sazima 1986, Nico & Taphoro 1988) but the extent of this habit remains unknown. Since carrion as a resource is unpredictable in time and space, it seems very difficult to assess this point unless carcasses are provisioned. Scavenging habits probably account for some of the stories about man-eating piranhas (Sazima & Guimaraes 1987) . g. Losey 1978, DeMartini & Coyer 1981, Lucas & Benkert 1983, Sazima 1983, Ribbink 1984) . The coincidental occurrence of cleaning and mutilating feeding habits (sensu Curio 1976) is known mainly for juveniles, and the solitary and territorial habits of S.
Alternative life-history styles of fishes by Michael N. Bruton (auth.), Michael N. Bruton (eds.)