By Andrew Hodges
It is barely a mild exaggeration to assert that the British mathematician Alan Turing (1912-1954) stored the Allies from the Nazis, invented the pc and synthetic intelligence, and expected homosexual liberation through decades--all sooner than his suicide at age 41. This vintage biography of the founding father of machine technology, reissued at the centenary of his delivery with a considerable new preface through the writer, is the definitive account of a rare brain and existence. A gripping tale of arithmetic, desktops, cryptography, and gay persecution, Andrew Hodges's acclaimed booklet captures either the internal and outer drama of Turing's life.
Hodges tells how Turing's progressive proposal of 1936--the notion of a common machine--laid the basis for the trendy machine and the way Turing introduced the belief to useful consciousness in 1945 together with his digital layout. The e-book additionally tells how this paintings used to be at once regarding Turing's top function in breaking the German Enigma ciphers in the course of global battle II, a systematic triumph that was once serious to Allied victory within the Atlantic. even as, this is often the tragic tale of a guy who, regardless of his wartime provider, used to be ultimately arrested, stripped of his safety clearance, and compelled to endure a humiliating therapy program--all for attempting to reside truthfully in a society that outlined homosexuality as a crime.
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Extra resources for Alan Turing: The Enigma (Centenary Edition)
35 Six statues of Cleopatra represent the first use of the triple form of the uraeus in Egyptian royal sculpture, its meaning still unclear. Initially it was suggested that the triple form of the uraeus represented a triple rule, although the double, as mentioned previously, typically represents the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. Recently it has been suggested that for Cleopatra VII, the three cobras could represent (1) Cleopatra’s title of “Queen of Kings”; (2) territorial gains, following the Donations of Alexandria; or (3) the divine triad Horus, Isis, and Osiris, as a means of representing Caesarion, Cleopatra, and Ptolemy XII her father, who not only called himself the “New Dionysos” but inspired the queen to adopt the title Philopator (“father-loving”).
Bianchi in “Not the Isis Knot” (1980) and was re-iterated by me in “The Ptolemaic Influence on Egyptian Royal Sculpture,” in A. , Current Research in Egyptology 2000 (2000), and in fuller detail with a full catalog of this type of image in my Ptolemaic Royal Sculpture (2001): 45–53. 39. R. S. Bianchi, R. A. Fazzini, and J. , Cleopatra’s Egypt: Age of the Ptolemies (1988): 181, no. 73. 40. Ashton, “The Ptolemaic Influence on Egyptian Royal Sculpture” (2000): 2. 41. S. Walker and P. Higgs (2001): 160, no.
J. A. Auerbach, The Great Exhibition of 1851: A Nation on Display (1999): 168. 26. Fullest account in Martina D’Alton, The New York Obelisk, or How Cleopatra’s Needle Came to New York and What Happened When It Got Here (1993). 27. Henry H. Gorringe, Egyptian Obelisks (1882). One aspect of the project that deserves mention is that all the men involved in it, including the financial backer William Henry Vanderbilt, were Freemasons; a parade of nine thousand Masons marched up Fifth Avenue for the ceremony of laying the cornerstone.
Alan Turing: The Enigma (Centenary Edition) by Andrew Hodges