By C. G. Pantano, J. F. Kelso, M. J. Suscavage (auth.), David R. Rossington, Robert A. Condrate, Robert L. Snyder (eds.)
The characterization of fabrics and phenomena has traditionally been the valuable hassle to the advance in each one sector of technological know-how. as soon as what we're staring at is definitely outlined, a theoretical research speedily follows. smooth theories of chemical bonding didn't evolve until eventually the tools of analytical chemistry had stepped forward to some extent the place the majority stoichiometry of chemical substances used to be firmly tested. the good development made in this century in realizing chemistry has at once from the advance of an analytical chemistry according to the Dalton assumption of a number of proportions. It has in basic terms develop into obvious lately that the extension of our knowing of fabrics hinges on their non-stoichiometric nature. the area of non-Daltonian chemistry is especially poorly understood at the moment as a result of our inability to exactly symbolize it. The emergence of fabrics technology has merely simply happened with our reputation of results, that have been idea formerly to be minor diversifications from ideality, because the central phenomena controlling houses. the next move within the historic evolution of fabrics technology needs to be the improvement of instruments to represent the customarily sophisticated phenomena which make certain homes of fabrics. many of the discussions of instrumental strategies awarded during this booklet are very good summaries for the cutting-edge of fabrics characterization at this relatively serious level of fabrics technological know-how. the applying of the instruments defined right here, and people but to be constructed, holds the major to the improvement of this little one right into a mature science.
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Extra resources for Advances in Materials Characterization
18(3):700 (1981). DEPTH-PROFILING STUDIES OF GLASSES AND CERAMICS BY ION BEAM TECHNIQUES I. S. T. Tsong Department of Physics Arizona State University Tempe, AZ 85287 ABSTRACT Various ion beam techniques are currently in use to measure the elemental concentration profile as a function of depth in a solid. e. ~ IOkeV, the techniques include sputter-induced photon spectrometry (SIPS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and ion scattering spectrometry (ISS). When the primary ion energy increases to several MeV, the accelerator-based techniques such as Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), elastic recoil detection (ERD) and resonant nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) are very useful for depth profiling.
This appears to be true even in the case of the ternary and quaternary silicate glasses containing soda. However, the most significant observation is the fact that the calibration curve does not extrapolate through zero. Since the curve must pass through zero, but has a positive intercept in this case, it indicates that the sodium ions take a preferential position in the outermost atomic layer of these 'ideal' surfaces. The potassia silica system exhibits a more complex behavior. A reduction in the bulk concentration of KzO brings about an increase in its relative surface concentration.
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Advances in Materials Characterization by C. G. Pantano, J. F. Kelso, M. J. Suscavage (auth.), David R. Rossington, Robert A. Condrate, Robert L. Snyder (eds.)